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Diabetes ialah sejenis penyakit kronik yang terjadi apabila organ pankreas tidak dapat menghasilkan insulin yang cukup atau apabila badan tidak dapat menggunakan insulin dengan berkesan. Ini menyebabkan paras glukos (gula) meningkat dalam darah. Insulin ialah sejenis hormon yang dihasilkan oleh pankreas yang membantu sel-sel dalam badan untuk mengambil glukos dari darah dan menggunakannya sebagai tenaga.

"Diabetes boleh terjadi di kalangan kanak-kanak di semua peringkat umur"
Bold
Tahukah awda?
-Diabetes semakin meningkat dikalangan kanak-kanak
-Diabetes adalah salah satu penyakit paling kronik di kalangan kanak-kanak
-Walaupun adanya rawatan moden, lebih daripada 50% kanak-kanak yang menghidapi diabetes mendapat komplikasi 12 tahun selepas diagnosis.
-Penjagaan yang terbaikbialah dengan melibatkan berbagai disiplin (multidiscliplinary) dari semua bidang profesional yang berkaitan dengan kesihatan kanak-kanak
-Kanak-kanak yang menghidapi diabetes boleh menikmati kehidupan yang sihat dan produktif.

Apakah jenis-jenis diabetes?

Diabetes Jenis 1:
  1. Seringkali terjadi dikalangan kanak-kanak dan remaja
  2. Berlaku aoabila pankreas gagal menghasilkan insulin
  3. Memerlukan insulin untuk rawatan dan mencegah komplikasi diabetis
Diabetes Jenis 2:
  1. Lazimnya berlaku di kalangan dewasa; semakin menibgkat dikalangan kanak-kanak yang obes
  2. Sering dikaitkan dengan berat badan berlebihan
  3. Insulin yang dihasilkan oleh pankreas kurang berfubgsi
  4. Boleh dikawal dengan mengawal makanan dan berat badan
  5. Mungkin memerlukan ubat-ubatan dan juga suntikan insulin

Apakah tanda-tanda diabetes?


Kerap buang air kecil
Dahaga yang berlebihan
Sentiasa merasa lapar
Berat badan menurun
Merasa penat
Kurang tumpuan perhatian dan minat
Kabur penglihatan
Muntah dan sakit perut (sering dikelirukan sebagai flu)

Dikalangan kanak-kanak yang menghidapi diabetes jenis 2, tanda-tanda ini mungkin ringan atau tiada langsung.


Bagaimana diabetes dikenalpasti dan dipantau?


Ujian-ujian yabg lazim dibuat untuk mengenalpasti diabetes ialah:
-Ujian darah untuk mengetahui paras glukos
-'Glycated Haemoglobin' (HbA1C)
-C-peptide

Bagaimana untuk memantau diabetes awda?
Ramai pesakit diabetes memeriksa paras glukos mereka sendiri dan belajar bagaimana mengubah dos insulin untuk mengawal diabetes dengan lebih baik. Ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan sampel cucukan jari. Paras glukos dalam darah yang normal ialah di antara 3.5-8.0 mmol/l.

Apakah HbA1c?
HbA1c memberikan gambaran menyeluruh mengenai kawalan glukos dalam darah pada beberapa bulan sebelumnya. Ianya menyukat jumlah hemoglobin yang yang telah melekat pada sisa-sisa lebihan glukos dalam darah. Paras HbA1c yang normal dalam darah ialah hingga 6.0% bagi orang-orang yang tidak menhhidapi diabetes. awda mempunyai kawalan yang baik jika paras hbA1c awda kurang daripada 6.5%.

Adakah diabetes berlainan bagi kanak-kanak?
Diabetes mempunyai impak yang unik terhadap kanak-kanak dan keluarga mereka. Kehidupan harian mereka terganggu dengan keperluan untuk memeriksa paras glukos, pemgambilan ubat dan mengimbangkan kesan-kesan aktiviti dan makanan. Diabetes juga boleh mengganggu perkembangan normal kanak-kanak dan remaja, termasuk kejayaan dalam pelajaran dan peralihan ke alam dewasa.

Untuk memastikan kesihatan fizikal dan emosi yang terbaik untuk kanak-kanak dan keluarga mereka, penjagaan kesihatan seharusnya diterima daripada berbagai bidang disiplin (multidisciplinary) yang mempunyai pengetahuan mendalam mengenai isu-isu pediatrik.

Mengapakah kawalan diabetes yang baik itu penting?
Diabetes ialah penyakit kronik dan memerlukan pemantauan dan pemgawalan yang rapi untuk sepanjang hidup. Tanpa pengurusan rawatan yang baik, ianya boleh menyebabkan kenaikan paras glukos yang tinggi dan memudahkan komplikasi diabetes terjadi.

Apa yang boleh saya lakukan untuk mengawal diabetes?
  1. Bersenam
  2. Pemakanan yang sihat dan kurang lemak
  3. Kurangkan berat badan jika perlu
  4. Berjumpa doktor
Pemeriksaan pesakit diabetes:

Kawalan permakanan- Setiap kali makan
HbA1c- 2-4 bulan jika tinggi dan cuba dikurangkan
Buah pinggang- protein dalam air kencing setiap tahun
Mata/saraf-Setahun sekali
Tekanan darah- sebulan sekali jika tinggi
Periksa glukos- 6 kali sehari (bagi pengguna insulin) dan 1 kali seminggu diet (bagi pesakit yang mempunyai kawalan baik)
Bersenam- berjalan 5-10000 langkah sehari
Memeriksa kaki- srtiap hari
Timbangan badan- sekali seminggu jika hendak mengurangkannya

"kunci pencegahan komplikasi ialah melalui pengesanan awal- jika dikesan awal, ianya lebih mudah dirawati"

Bolehkah diabetes dicegah?
Lebih daripada 50% diabetes jenis 2 boleh dicegah. perubahan dari segi cara hidup telah menunjukkan ianya berkesan dalam mencegah atau melambatkan terjadinya diabetes jenis 2. Ini termasuklah:

  1. Meningkatkan kegiatan fizikal- awda hanya perlu melakukan kegiatan yang sederhana 30 minit sehari, 5 kali seminggu.
  2. Mengamalkan pemakanan sehat- makan 3-5 hidangan buah-buahan dan sayur-sayuran setiap hari dan kurangkan pengambilan gula dan lemak tepu.
  3. Mengurangkan berat badan- dianggarkan lebih daripada setengah kes-kes diabetes jenis 2 boleh dielakkan jika berat badan berlebihan dapat dicegah.
  4. Berhenti merokok- Penghidap-penghidap diabetes mempunyai lebih risiko meninggal dunia disebabkan oleh penyakit jantung koronari, strok dan penyakit vaskular periferi. merokok meningkatkan lagi risiko ini.
KEM. KESIHATAN,
N.B.D.

Your Health Matters- 'Health is a Precious Asset'.
Learn and understand different main organs inside the body that can infected with diseases through the Cross-section Human Model
Find the hidden stensil's game.

Health galleria is a health exhibition area that functions to provide knowledge and experience that is interactive, fun and innovative for everyone. The exhibition comprise of different aspects of health that promotes healthy lifestyles such as:

  1. Tobacco control
  2. Nutrition
  3. Physical activity
  4. Food safety
  5. Mental health
  6. Occupational health and safety
  7. Men and women's health
  8. Oral health
Nutrition:

Food guideline for life
Portion sizes according to age groups
Cost and value of certain foods
Sugar and fat contents of foods and many more information on nutrition

Food safety:

Know the correct way of handwashing
Know the type and shape of different bacteria that causes food poisoning through a microscope view
The ideal model kitchen
Know the correct ways to store foods inside a refregerator
Know how to detect good or spoiled food through sense of smell
Interactive games on food safety

Oral health:

Experience a visit to the dentist
Know the types of healthy foods for your teeth
Watch videos on ways to care for your teeth
try out the Tooth Defence Game

Physical activity:

Know the benefits of physical activity
Know the difference between a healthy and unhealthy heart
know your fitness level by trying the interactive cycling and rowing machines
Test your reflex, coordination and accuracy with fun arcade games
Know your BMI (body mass index)

Tobacco control:

Know the different forms and disguise of tobacco
Cigarette smoke simulator- experience the environment of a smoker
Know more on the myths and facts on smoking
several interactive games include cigarette shoot out, wheel of misfortune and smoking age-effect

Mental health:

Extent your understanding on mental health
test your stress level using the Stress Meter Test
Take the chance to use the relaxation and massage chair, together with ambient music and calming scenery

Occupational health:

Learn the correct way to lift heavy objects
Experience how to check and compare noise levels using the audio Interactive
Different kinds of Personal Protective Equipments to try on
Know the ways to avoid hazards in the workpace using the Interactive Charts

Reproductive health:

Informative exhibits on:
Anatomy of the female reproductive system
Ways to conduct self health check for women
Ways to conduct self health check for men
3D ultrasound video of foetal development inside the womb
Way to calculate pregnancy stage
process of pregnancy

Visiting Hours:
Tuesday to Thursday & Saturday:
Morning : 8.00 am - 12.15 pm
Afternoon : 1.30 pm - 4.30 pm

Sunday : 9.00 am - 5.00 pm

Monday, Friday and Public Holidays : Closed

Entry is free of charge.

For more information, please contact:
Health Promotion Centre
Commonwealth Drive,
BSB, BB3910
Brunei Darussalam

TeL No. +673 2384223
FaX No. +673 2384223

MAKE HEALTHY CHOICES EVERYDAY- Experience the Fun!..


kalau kitani bercakap mengenai herba tradisional, semestinya berkait rapat dengan perawatan alternatif. Semua badan perubatan adalah merupakan agensi bagi usaha untuk menyembuhkan penyakit-penyakit yang dihadapi oleh manusia, haiwan mahupun tumbuhan.

Badan perubatan moden yang lebih kitani kenali sebagai klinik klinik swasta memang nda asing lagi pada masa ani. Sekiranya apa pun penyakit yang dihidapi oleh kitani yang dapat diikhtiarkan hanyalah membawa sipesakit tersebut ke pusat berkenaan. Pada masa ani alhamdulillah orang orang kitani sudah concern mengenai perihal pentingnya kesihatan. Bagi mereka yang berkemampuan, mereka akan terus ke pusat perubatan /klinik swasta yang berbayar, kerana disana mereka akan mendapat perawatan yang lebih teliti serta pengawasan yang terjamin. Pada yang lebih berkemampuan, sanggup mengeluarkan wang ringgit mendapatkan rawatan keluar negeri dengan memilih pakej-pakej tertentu iaitu 'rawatan special dari hujung rambut kehujung kaki'. Ani oleh dari mendangar dari mulut kemulut yang sudah mendapat hasil kepuasan dari pusat perubatan yang berkenaan. "auw nda menyasal walaupun bebelanja eh, yang penting puas hati". Banar jua ah, nda perlulah mendapatkan appointment/perjanjian terlebih dahulu, mun datang saja-saja ada karang dimarahi nurse nyanya ia kali punya spital ani. Nda payah kan be atur menunggu giliran kan bejumpa doktor (yang mana selalu kana komplen "menunggu kan bejumpa doktor batah..auw sampat lagi ku minum dikoperasi tapi bejumpa doktor nda pun sampai 10 minit udah tia siap ganya jua panadol dibarinya") dan lapas atu nda payah kan menunggu ubat bejam-jam. kedangaran lagi suara di suatu sudut..."mana lagi menyuruh menyain surat kebenaran keluar keraja, mun ndada tah diorang pecaya yang diri ani kan ke spital bejumpa doktor,...eh pakal saja memikirkan penyakit mun nda mambari malas bah kan kemari ani, udah tah payah paking. Kan paking bebayar, baik tah simpan saja kan bata anak kitani sakulah". Ada lagi suara bersahut-sahutan "auw eh lapas ani alum tantu kan dapat balik semula ke pejabat ni, tu nah liat jam kan pukul 4.30 tia udah. pukul 5 kan mengambil lagi anak balik sakulah, bukan saurang ganya kan diambil ani". Atutah senario yang biasa udah talinga ani mendangar..hafal sudah, khatam pun sudah.

Persoalannya, Apakah kitani akan memperolehi kesihatan yang terjamin jika mendapat rawatan berterusan dipusat perawatan moden??, Belum tantu.

Setiap penyakit ada ubatnya...
Dimana? dan Bagaimana?
Dengan adanya pusat rawatan alternatif, dapatlah kitani memilih yang mana sesuai untuk kitani. Apa yang kitani tau, perubatan tradisional tidak kurang jua hebatnya. Kadang-kadang ramai diantara kitani yang telah dapat menyelesaikan penyakit yang dihidapi dengan hanya mengunjungi pusat-pusat alternatif setelah usaha dipusat perubatan moden menemui jalan buntu...

Living Naturally.....

6:15:00 PM

Bagaimana kita melihat isu jururawat Islam? Apakah yang dikehendaki oleh jururawat islam?. Adakah menjadi satu kesilapan jika kita mengambil manfaat dari tokoh jururawat barat seperti Florance Nightingle dan Virginia Herderson yang tidak islamik?. Adakah lengkap dengam kita hanya menjadikan tokoh jururawat Nusaybah dan Rufaidah sebagai model kejururawatan Islam?

Kita perlu kembali kepada fungsi dan tujuan kerjaya jururawat sebelum menjawap persoalan persoalan tersebut. Fungsi seorang jururawat adalah memberikan perawatan kepada pesakit sehingga mendapat kesembuhan.

Teori 14 keperluan activity of daily living (ADL) yang dicetuskan oleh Virginia Herderson akan dapat membantu para pesakit:

  1. Breathe normally
  2. Eat and drink adequately
  3. Eliminate body wastes
  4. Move and maintain desirable postures
  5. Sleep and rest
  6. Select suitable clothes- dress and undress
  7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying environment.
  8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
  9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injury to others
  10. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears or opinions
  11. Worship according to one's faith
  12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment
  13. play or participate in various forms of recreation
  14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health and use the available health facilities.
"The unique function of the nurse is to assist the individual, sick or well, in the performance of those activities contributing to health or its recovery (or to peaceful death) that he would perform unaided if he had the necessary strength, will or knowledge. And to do this in such a way as possible" (Herderson, 1966).

Kesimpulannya, tidak menjadi masalah jika kita mengambil prinsip-prinsip dan teori kejururawatan yang telah diperkenalkan oleh tokoh-tokoh jururawat barat seperti Florance nightingle dan Virginia Herderson dalam bidang kejururawatan. kerana kita dapat mengambil hikmah segala perkara-perkara baik dari prinsip-prinsip tersebut. Ia akan menepati keperluan dalam memajukan perawatan. kita bukan mengagung-agungkan Eropah tetapi kita hanya mengambil hikmah dan iktibar untuk kita menjadi lebih maju...lebih kurang menjadikan mana yang baik dijadikan teladan dan menjadikan yang buruk itu sebagai sempadan kehidupan.

Sebagaimana kata Imam Malik: "Tidak gemilang umat akhir zaman melainkan kembali melaksanakan apa yang telah menyebabkan ummat terdahulu menjadi gemilang".

Apakah Nilai Islam dalam kejururawatan?

Pada masa dahulu seorang muslimah itu memainkan peranan di medan jihad. Ia telah melakukan kerja memberi minum tentera dan merawat orang yang luka. Bahkan kadangkala seorang wanita itu turut serta menghunus senjata. Contohnya Ummu Nusaibah binti kaab kerana mempertahankan rasulullah SAW dan pengikutnya didalam peperangan Uhud" (Mustafa Mashyur).

Quantum Intifada, may 31,(2009)

Sepatah kata kepada Ibu- awda boleh mencegah penyakit demam kuning yang teruk yang menyebabkan kerosakan otak malahan maut..

APAKAH PENYAKIT DEMAM KUNING?

  1. Penyakit demam kuning ialah kekuningan pada kulit.
  2. Ia biasa menghinggapi anak anak damit dalam 3 minggu yang pertama usia mereka.
  3. Ia boleh mengakibatkan CACAT OTAK malahan MAUT jika tidak diubatkan dengan segera.
BAGAIMANA PENYAKIT DEMAM KUNING DISEBABKAN?
  1. Di dalam badan anak damit, didapati sel-sel darah merah, yang dikuatkan dengan sejenis bahan 'enzyme'.
  2. Sebilangan sel-sel ini dimusnahkan dan digantikan setiap hari
  3. Apabila sel-sel darah merah itu dimusnahkan, terjadilah pigmen yang berwarna kuning.
  4. Jika hati anak damit berada dalam keadaan sihat, ia boleh menyerap pigmen dan menghilangkan racunnya.
Jika hati anak damit kurang mampu atau terlalu banyak sel darah merah dimusnahkan pigmen kuning akan bertambah dan dibawa keseluruh badan, menguningkan kulit dan mata.

Apabila terlalu lebih pigmen kuning tiba ke otak, SEL-SEL OTAK AKAN DIMUSNAHKAN, mengakbatkan CACAT OTAK malahan MAUT.

SEL DARAH MERAH YANG LEBIH DARIPADA BIASA AKAN DIMUSNAHKAN:
  1. Apabila anda memakan sesuatu jenis dadah seperti antibiotik semasa awda menyusukan anak damit dengan susu badan awda atau apabila awda memberi sedikit dadah yang tersebut kepada anak damit awda.
  2. Apabila awda membedung anak damit dengan kain-kain yang tersimpan didalam almari yang dibubuh kapur barus atau mendukung anak damit apabila memakai pakaian yang terdedah kepada kapur barus.
.......Ini kerana Bahan-bahan kimia didalam makanan-makanan tersebut dan didalam kapur barus (masuk menerusi nafas atau diresap oleh kulit) boleh memusnahkan sel-sel darah merah, TERUTAMA SEL-SEL YANG KEKURANGAN 'ENZYME', dan menyebabkan kehasilan pigmen kuning meningkat.

BAGAIMANA MENCEGAH PENYAKIT DEMAM KUNING YANG TERUK?

Dalam masa 3 minggu yang pertama usia anak damit awda...

JANGAN MEMAKAN ATAU MEMBERI KEPADA ANAK DAMIT AWDA:
  1. Ubat-ubatan dan makanan-makanan seperti halia dan beberapa jenis jamu.
  2. Kacang parang.
Makanan-makanan ini mengakibatkan lebih sel darah merah daripada biasa dimusnahkan sambil merosakkan hati.

JANGAN MENGGUNAKAN KAPUR BARUS:

Untuk pakaian-pakaian awda dan anak damit awda, kapur barus mengandungi sejenis bahan kimia yang boleh memusnahkan sel-sel darah merah sambil merosakkan hati apabila masuk menerusi tarikan nafas atau diresap oleh kulit anak damit.

JIKA ANAK DAMIT AWDA MENGIDAP PENYAKIT DEMAM KUNING BAWALAH DIA KEPADA DOKTOR DENGAN SEGERA!
Seseorang anak damit yang teruk mengidap penyakit demam kuning boleh diselamatkan dari maut atau cacat otak dengan penukaran darah yang secepatnya.

7:19:00 PM

ENERGY is the ability to do work.

Even though you can't even really see it,
energy causes millions of different actions and reactions to occur every single day.

In fact, whenever something moves, heats, cools, grows, changes or produces light or sound, energy is involved.

NON-RENEWABLE energy

Non-renewable energy comes from sources that can't be replenished in a short period of time. We got most of our energy from non-renewable energy sources, which include fossil fuels such as oil, natural gas, coal and from nuclear energy. Fossils fuel are thought to have been formed from the buried remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.

Fossils fuels take millions of years to make, but burn and disappear in seconds. Once they are used, they cannot be reused. people have irretrievably damaged the planet by extracting and burning these fuels. It is best not to waste fossil fuels as they are not renewable. We have to learn to conserve these sources of energy.

At present, the worldwide burning of coal, oil, and natural gas releases billions of tonnes of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere every year. Burning any fossil fuel means pollution of some sort. Even if the fuel is low in sulphur, the atmosphere contains nitrogen, which combines with oxygen at the high burning temperatures found in boilers, jet, or car engines. This yields nitrogen oxides, which like sulphur dioxide,dissolves in rain toformnitric acid. Both gases are poisonous to humans.

Mining and exploration for fossil fuels can cause disturbance to the surrounding ecosystem. The burning of fossil fuels emits oxides of suphur and nitrogen into the atmsphere.

COAL

Fossil fuel in rock form.
Can be used to heat air and water and to produce electricity.
It is also used in manufacturing.

NATURAL GAS

Fossil fuel in gas fom. It can be used to heat air and water toproduce electricity, as a transportation fuel and as an ingredient in industrial products.

PETROLEUM

Fossil fuel in oil form. It can be used to heat air and water, to produce electricity, as transportation fuel and as a material in manufacturing.

NUCLEAR

Energy in the nucleus (core) of an atom. Nuclear energy can be used to make electricity. But first the energy must be released. It can be released from atoms in 2 ways: Nucleur Fusion and Nucleur Fission. The fuel most widely used by nucleur plants for nucleur fission is Uranium. Uranium is non-renewable. Relying on fossil fuels for energy generation is unsustainable. Hence the need to find more renewable, sustaiable ways of generating energy.

SOLAR ENERGY

Energy directly from the sun.
Solar power is used synonymously with solar energy or more specifically to refer to the conversion of sunlight into electricity. The solar collectors you see on rooftops use a process called photovoltaics. Silicon, an element found in sand, is used to convert sunlight i to energy If you have a solar-powered watch or calculator, you're using photovoltaics.

WIND ENERGY

Energy from the wind can be used to produce electricity.
A wind turbine (modern windmills) turn wind energy into electricity. Wind turbine can be found singularly, but usualy many together in wind farms. Wind energy is a pollutant-free, infinitely sustainable form of energy. It doesn't use fuel, it doesnt pruduce greenhouse gasses, and it doesn't produce toxic or radioactive waste.

HYDROPWER

Hydro means water. Hydropower is the energy we make with moving water.
Hydroelectricity is electricity produced by hydropower. It is a renewable source of energy, produces no waste, and does not produce carbon dioxide (CO2) which contributes to greenhouse gasses. Most hydroelectric power comes from the potential energy of dammed water driving a water turbine and generator.

GEOTHERMAL

Geothermal energy is heat from within the earth.
We can use the steam and hot water produced inside the earth to generate electricity. geothermal energy is a renewable energy source because the water is replenished by rainfall and the heat is continously produced inside the earth. Geothermal energy can sometimes find its way to the surface in the form of volcanoes and fumaroles (holes where volcanic gases are released), hot springs and geysers.

BIOMASS

This is a decaying plant or animal waste. An organic material which can be burnt to provide energy such as heat and electricity. It is a remewable energy source bacause we can always grow more tree and crops, and waste will always exists, some examples of biomass fuels are wood, crops, manure, and some garbage. Biofuels are transport fuels made from plant materials and recycled elements of the foodchain (biomass).

May, 2009. ENERGY MATTERS: Kids' corner.

The idea of energy conservation is not new. Energy conservation is any behaviour that results in the use of less energy. Energy conservation is pivortal in protecting the environment and those around you.

One of the main causes of global warming is the accumulation of excessive amounts of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Driving, air travel, power generation, manufacturing, purification of water and sewage and other activities release carbon dioxide and other heat-trapping gases into the atmosphere. Efforts to save energy reduce carbon dioxide emissions, and this has a more positive effect on the global environment.

THERE ARE MANY THINGS THAT WE CAN DO to use energy more efficiently.
Here are some energy-saving tips for your household!

AIR-CONDITIONER

Don't go to extremes when setting the temperature.

it is the norm nowadays to set the temperature too low, but by raising the air-conditioner temperature by 1 degree Celsius, you can save around 10 % in energy. keep your temperature settings as moderate as possible.

Clean filters frequently
Filters should be cleaned about once every 2 weeks. when the filters are clogged, the efficiency of air-conditioners decreases. to clean filters, remove the dust with the vacuum cleaner, or if they are very dirty, wash them in lukewarm water with a neutral soap and dry thoroughly before replacing.

Reduce the heat with the curtains.
One way to use the air-conditioner more efficiently is to block the heat that penetrates through the windows. Draw your curtains to cut the solar rays entering the house.

Find a good place for the air-conditioner compressor unit.
If there are objects or enclosures around the air- conditioner compressor unit, the air-conditioner does not cool well. To boost the efficiency of the air conditioner, place the air-conditioner compressor unit at a well-ventilated area.

Make use of fans.
Even at the same temperature setting, it feels cooler when there is a breeze. If you use a fan together with the air-conditioner, you can set the temperature a little higher and still feel cool.

LIGHTS

Use energy saving bulbs instead of incandescents bulbs.
When a comparison is made of the cost of electricity required by incandescent bulbs (40W) and energy saving bulbs (8W) equivalent to 40 watts, the energy saving bulb is cheaper in the long run because the running cost is cheaper.

Switch of lights
Switch of the lights before you leave the room and when the room is vacant. Consider ways to optimise your use of natural light from the sun during the day time.

WASHING MACHINE

Save time and electricity by washing large loads.
Try to wash large loads instead of many small loads to reduce the time required and the electricity cost.

REFREGERATOR

Change the temperature settings depending on the amount of food.
The refregerator temperature can be set to "high", "medium" or "low". If the temperature is set at "medium", there is a saving in electricity consumption compared to "high", and if the temperature is set at "low", there is a saving compared to "medium". Keep this in mind and remember to adjust the temperature setting depending on the amount of food in the refregerator.

Don't leave the door open for so long.
It is easy to take frequent looks inside and to hold the door open while checking ingredients for the day's menu. However, holding the door open and frequent opening and closing result in higher electricity consumption. Do not open the door more than necessary.

Placement is important.
When there is no space around the refregerator, electricity consumption increases because radiant heat cannot escape. There are some models that can be placed right next to the wall, but to leave as much space as possible.

ELECTRIC HOT WATER POT

Turn off the main power when not using it for a long period.
It is more economical to reheat the water than to keep it warm for along period of time. If you are not going to use hot water for a while, turn off the electrical outlet.

VACUUM CLEANER

Remove the dust before cleaning.
Cleaning with a full dust bag and a dusty filter places a burden on the motor. Cleaning the dust bag and the filter prior to vacuuming saves energy.

Focus on dirty spots.
With carpets, dirt accumulates where people walk, and with wood flooring dirt accumulates in the corners. It is more effective and recommended that you vacuum longer and carefully in the case of carpets, and shorter but more frequently in the case of wood floors.

RICE COOKER

Use the "warm" setting not more than seven hours.
If you use the "warm' setting for more than 7 hours, the amount of electricity used is equivalent to the amount needed to cook a new pot of rice. So, instead of keeping the rice warm for more than 7 hours, save electricity by cooking a new pot of rice.

TELEVISION

Turn off the television when not watching.
Leaving a big television set on when you're not watching can waste as much energy as six 60-watt light bulbs.

Watch television together with your family.
In our affluent society, one household could have several television sets. To minimise the usage of electricity, watch television together with your family. This also helps foster closer family ties.

Turn off the main power.
Television's standby power consumes only a small amount of electricity, but the regular daily effort to turn it off adds up to significant energy savings. For some models equipped to receive digital broadcasts, it is recommended that the remote control be used to turn of the power so that the satellite download service remains connected.

The amount of electricity consumption varies with the type of television.
The amount of electricity varies depending on whether the television is plasma, liquid crystal, or cathode-ray tube type. As you can see, even with televisions of the same size, the cathode-ray tube television consumes less electricity than the plasma television. Moreover the larger the television screen, the more energy is consumed.

EVEN WHEN NOT USING THE APLIANCES, you are using standby power!

Turn off the main power.
If you turn off the power with the remote control instead of the main power switch, the standby power remains on to receive signals from the remote control. This consumes electricity. in some cases, the amount of electricity consumed by standby power amounts to 10% of the household's electricity consumption.

When away from home for long periods, turn off the main power of electrical outlets.
household electrical appliances that are on standby to receive signals from remote controls consume a small amount of electricity when the main power switch remains "on". When you plan to be aware from home for a long period, remove plugs from outlets whereever possible. This is not only for energy saving but also for safety.

HOW YOU CAN BENEFIT FROM saving energy

Saving energy can help reduce your household electrical bill which in turn will improve your household budget. Conserving energy resources benefits Brunei Darussalam as a country as well as the global environment. Conserving energy helps safeguard the earth for future generations.

DRIVE SMART
save energy

"Before driving"
Weight check-
leaving items in your car increases the weight. The heavier your car, the more fuel you will waste.

Tyre pressure check- the air pressure in your tyres has a large effect on your mileage. Tyre pressure should be checked once a month. If you drive with tyres below the standard pressure, you will waste more fuel.

"While Driving"
Acceleration-
Leisurely acceleration is more comfortable and saves fuel. When accelerate more slowly, thereby reducing fuel consumption during acceleration.

Driving at steady speed- stop-and-go driving, where you frequently slow down and speed up, consumes a large amount of fuel. Driving at a steady speed is aan important technique for saving energy.

Coasting- Utilisationof coasting, where you take your foot off the accelerator and allow the car to move by inertia, greatly reduces fuel consumption.

Stop idling- turn off your engine if you stop even for only a short period of time. Vehicles continously consume gasoline even whie idling. Turning of the engine when the car is stopped is the surest way to save fuel.

Reduce air-conditioner usage- remember to turn down or turn off your air-conditioner whennthe temperature drops.

"When Parking"

Use a sunshade or park in a shady area, if possible.
The temperature of a car parked in the sun will rise to 50 degree Celsius in a short span of 10 minutes. By placing a sunshade inside the front windshield, you can reduce the temperature increase. This will in turn help reduce the burden on the car air-conditioner when you start your engine. If you must park in the sun, leave the windows slightly open to let out hot air.Bold

Gasoline & Petrol subsides
Gasoline and diesel are subsidised petroleum products in brunei Darussalam.

May, 2009. Playing our part: ENERGY MATTERS.

It is fair to say that our lives in Brunei Darussalam today are well shaped and run by energy or conventional energy. The national wealth, for instance, comes mainly from revenue generated by the export of our energy resorces oil and natural gas. Our ability to function everyday stems from utilising energy in various ways. From powering our homes to fueling our cars and cooking our meals, energy is no longer just commodity. It is a necessity. The convenience and comfort that energy brings have encouraged us to embrace an "energy" age.

As we grow more dependent on energy to function in our everyday lives, our vulnerability to energy shortages increases. With the growth in population and industrial activities, energy demand will continue to rise. To meet the rising demand, more oil and natural gas will need to be extracted as these are our only source of energy. Oil and natural gas are exhaustable and will deplete at some point, affecting global supply.

As much as we depend on oil and gas for our energy supply, these carbon-based fuels are also the largest emitters of carbon dioxide- a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming.

Mother nature is unleashing upon us heat waves, rising sea levels, melting glaciers and violent weather- all cataclysmic effects of global warming. Even our country, Brunei Darussalam, is not spared. We have been experiencing warmer temperatures, more violent storms and unpredictable weather in recent years.

In general, the transportation sector here consumes the most energy, evident by the increasing number of private vehicles on the road. Brunei Darussalam was the third largest energy consumer per capita in the region, after Singapore and Japan in 2006. Brunei is also one of the countries which consumes the most electricity per capita.

What we do today will affect the needs of our future generations. It is our responsibility and obligation to preserve the energy resources of our grandchildren and their great grandchildren. We also need to safeguard the environment against the effects of global warming. The days where we consume energy passively is over. We must start to make wiser choices in consuming energy and actively educate the younger generation on this issue.

The key is to conserve and consume energy effectively and efficiently. This was even highlighted by His Majesty the Sultan and Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam in his "titah" during His Majesty's 61st Birthday on 15 July 2007. His Majesty said, "In the fast flow of development anything new must be acted on with intelligence. Energy issues, specifically oil and gas, are the closest examples. We must realise that these two natural resources will not last forever. A saving attitude in the use of energy is the best way (to move forward) for all public and private agencies and also individuals."

You can start today to help reduce our energy consumption at home for a more sustainable Brunei Darussalam by applying energy efficiency and conservation measures and practices. There are many ways to save energy and with concerted efforts these small changes can make a big difference.

D, Yahya; May 2009. ENERGY MATTERS.

Berikutan dengan kejadian hujan lebat dan banjir pada masa ini, Kementerian Kesihatan ingin mengingatkan orang ramai terutama yang tinggal dikawasan yang boleh terjejas dan yang telah dilanda banjir supaya mengambil langkah-langkah yang perlu bagi menghindarkan sebarang kecederaan dan kemungkinan berlakunya penyakit-penyakit berjangkit seperti kolera, tifoid, cirit-birit dan sebagainya.

Antara langkah-langkah yang perlu diambil jika berlakunya banjir termasuklah:

  • Memastikan bekalan air adalah bersih dan tidak tercemar
  • Memastikan air minum dimasak terlebih dahulu atau meminum air botol
  • Memasak semua makanan dengan sempurna
  • Mengutamakan kebersihan diri khususnya membasuh tangan dengan air bersih dan sabun sebelum mengendali makanan dan selepas menggunakan tandas
  • Menjaga kebersihan persekitaran dan tidak membuang sampah merata-rata
  • Mendapatkan rawatan jika mengalami penyakit seperti sakit perut, cirit-birit, muntah dan lain-lain
  • Mengutamakan keselamatan khususnya kanak-kanak agar tidak terdedah kepada air banjir bagi mengelakkan berlakunya perkara yang tidak didingini seperti lemas, kecederaan serta jangkitan penyakit
  • Mengelakkan daripada menyentuh dawai elektrik yang jatuh berdekatan air banjir
Pusat-pusat kesihatan dan juga hospital-hospital diseluruh negara akan sentiasa memantau mengenai berlakunya sebarang penyakit disebabkan oleh banjir.

BERITA,
FOKUS KESIHATAN- Bilangan 121, 2009.

Ambil langkah-langkah yang perlu supaya dapat menghindarkan sebarang kemalangan dan kemungkinan berlakunya penyakit-penyakit seperti cirit-birit, kolera, tifoid dan lain-lain.

Ketika berlakunya banjir:

1. Masak Air Minum

  • Masak air minum terlebih dahulu dibiarkan mendidih selama 5 minit bagi mengelakkan jangkitan bawaan air
2. Sediakan Bekalan Air
  • Pastikan bekalan air awda bersih dan tidak tercemar sebelum digunakan sebab bekalan air paip atau sumber-sumber lain mungkin tercemar ketika banjir
  • Simpan air dalam bekas-bekas yang sesuai dan bertutup rapat untuk digunakan jika bekalan air terputus.
3. Masak Semua Makanan
  • Masak semua makanan dengan sempurna sebelum dimakan
  • Gunakan air yang bersih untuk membersihkan sayur-sayuran dan semasa membasuh pinggan mangkuk
4. Utamakan Kebersihan Diri
  • Basuh tangan dengan sabun dan air bersih sebelum menghidang/menyediakan makanan dan selepas ketandas untuk mencegah penyakit dan keracunan makanan.
5. Jaga kebersihan Alam Sekitar
  • Jaga kebersihan alam sekitar dan jangan membuang sampah merata-rata terutama selepas banjir kerana ianya boleh menyebabkan pembiakan kuman-kuman penyakit berjangkit
6. Dapatkan Rawatan
  • Keadaan banjir boleh menimbulkan beberapa masalah kejadian penyakit-penyakit ringan seperti demam, selesema, batuk-batuk, cirit-birit dan juga penyakit yang merbahaya
  • Dapatkan rawatan segera di Pusat-Pusat Kesihatan/ Hospital-Hospital berhampiran sekiranya mempunyai tanda-tanda penyakit tersebut
  • Bagi pesakit-pesakit seperti kencing manis, tekanan darah tinggi dan lain-lainnya, hendaklah menyimpan bekalan ubat-ubatan dengan sempurna dan mencukupi selama sebulan
7. Utamakan Keselamatan
  • Orang ramai dinasihatkan supaya tidak mendedahkan diri kepada air banjir bagi megelakkan perkara-perkara yang tidak diingini berlaku seperti lemas dan kecederaan serta mencegah penyakit-penyakit seperti jangkitan kulit, cirit-birit dan lain-lain
  • Jangan biarkan kanak-kanak bermain air
  • Jangan sentuh dawai elektrik yang jatuh kedalam air
8. Ambil langkah berjaga-jaga
  • Sediakan Kit persediaan yang dilengkapi dengan lampu suluh, tempat dokumen penting, radio kecil, ubat-ubatan dan lain-lain yang diperlukan
  • Simpan dokumen-dokumen penting seperti kad pengenalan, paspot, surat beranak, kad kesihatan dan lain -lain di bekas/tempat yang selamat
  • Pastikan telefon bimbit berfungsi dengan baik
  • Sentiasa peka akan keadaan anak-anak dan ahli keluarga
  • Jangan cuba merempuhi jalan yang dinaiki air. Kenderaan awda berisiko untuk terkandas
  • Elakkan mengharungi air yang berarus sekiranya paras air melebihi paras lutut
  • Jsangan sentuh barangan elektrik sembarangan
9. Patuhi Arahan Pihak Berkuasa
  • Pasang radio untuk mendapatkan maklumat terkini berkaitan banjir
  • Pastikan awda bersedia selalu dan ikuti segera arahan pihak-pihak berkuasa
  • Apabila arahan berpindah dikeluarkan, tutup semua bekalan elektrik dan segera berpindah ke pusat-pusat penempatan sementara yang telah ditetapkan
Berhati-hati dan ambil langkah-langkah untuk menjaga keselamatan dan kesihatan keluarga ketika banjir.

BERITA PERUBATAN,
FOKUS KESIHATAN-Bilangan 121, 2009.

Apakah penyakit cirit-birit?
Penyakit cirit-birit dan keracunan makanan seperti tifoid (thyphoid) dan kolera (cholera) adalah disebabkan oleh kuman kuman (bakteria) dan juga virus. Kuman kuman ini terdapat pada najis, air kencing atau muntah penghidap penyakit tersebut.

Mengapa perlu bimbang?
Penyakit tersebut dapat memudaratkan kesihatan seseorang dan dianggap amat merbahaya. Ia boleh menyebabkan badan kekurangan cecair yang banyak (dehydration). Muntah-muntah dan demam akan mempercepatkan terjadinya dehidrasi. Dehidrasi yang teruk boleh menyebabkan kematian terutama dikalangan kanak-kanak dan orang tua.

Tanda-tanda penyakit cirit-birit dan keracunan makanan?

  1. Sakit perut
  2. Muntah-mkuntah dan rasa mual
  3. Mulut dan bibir menjasdi kering
  4. Cirit-birit
  5. Kulit menjadi kering
Dapatkan rawatan segera jika terdapat tanda-tanda diatas.

Apakah yang awda boleh lakukan?
  1. Menyediakan minuman rehydrasi bagi mengelakkan kekurangan cecair dan Boldketidakseimbangan elektrolit (electrolyte) dalam badan. Caranya: Bancuh 4 sudu teh rata gula dan 1/2 sudu teh rata garam pada 1 litre air suam (5 cawan penuh). Boleh juga didapati dengan mudah disediakan didalam pek yang dipanggil 'oral rehydration salt (ORS) yang mempunyai perisa oren atau meminum 100 plus.
  2. Banyakkan minum air, jus buah-buahan atau sup.
  3. Elakkan dari makan dengan banyak. Pilih makanan seperti bubur, bijirin atau pisang.
  4. Berehat jika awda berasa lemah.
Bagaimana penyakit cirit-birit dan keracunan makanan berlaku?
  1. Kuman-kuman penyakit boleh melekat pada jari-jari tangan seseorang selepas ia menggunakan tandas sekiranya tangan tidak dicuci dengan bersih
  2. Tangan yang dicemari kuman itu boleh mencemarkan makanan semasa menyediakan makanan
  3. Binatang dan serangga seperti tikus, lalat dan lipas akan membawa kuman-kuman tersebut kepada makanan yang terdedah
  4. Sesiapa yang memakan makanan atau meminum minuman


Pandemrix- new strain identified on April 24, 2009.

Contains a unique combination of gene segments that have not been reported previously among swine or human influenza viruses in the US or elsewhere.

Reassortant of 4 influenza A virus subtype H1N1 strains. Analysis at the CDC identified 4 components:
one endemic in humans
one endemic in birds
2 endemic in pigs (swine)

  1. 1 strain widespread in USA
  2. 1 strain widespread in Europe/Asia
Vaccines:
"Vaccination and the use of antiviral drugs are two of the most important response measures for reducing morbidity and mortality during a pandemic."

Anti-virals are likely to play a key role in preventing and treating influenza during the early stages of an influenza pandermic prior to the availability of a vaccine for the pandermic strain

Only the neuraminidase inhibitors zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) are being considered for use in a pandemic.

Posology:
Adults aged 18-60 years.
One dose of 0.5 ml at an elected date. A second dose of vaccine should preferably be given.
Interval of at least 3 weeks between 1st and 2nd dose.
Preliminary immunogenicity data in healthy adults aged 18-60 years suggest that a sungle dose may be sufficient in this age group.

Children and adolescents aged 10-17 years.
The choice of dose for this age group should thake into account available data on safety and immunogenicity in adults amd in children aged from 3-9 years.

Children aged 3-9 years.
If vaccination is considered necessary, available data suggest that half of the adult dose at an elected date and a second dose administered at least 3 weeks later may be sufficient.

Children aged from 6 months to 3 years.
If vaccination is considered to be necessary, consideration may be given to dosing in accordance with the recommendation in children aged 3-9 years.

Contraindication:
History of anaphylactic reaction (life-threatening) to the vaccine

Known allergy (hypersensitivity) to the active substance or any of the ingredients or trace residues contained in pandemrix-ovalbumin, formaldehyde, gentamycin sulphate.

Special warnings and Precautions:
Known hypersensitivity to eggs or chicken protein
Individuals with acute infection with high grade temperature (over 38C)
Individuals who are immunosupressed-endogenous/iatrogenic

Interaction with other medicinal products:
No data on co-administration with other vaccines
If co-administration with other vaccine is considered, administration should be on separate limbs. Adverse reactions may be intensified.

Pregnancy and lactation:
Currently no data available.
Data from pregnant women vaccinated with different inactivated non-adjuvenated seasonal vaccines do not suggest malfprmation of fetal or neonatal toxicity.
May be considered during pregnancy if necessary, taking into account official recommendations.
Pandemrix may be used in lactating women.

Shelf life and stability:
2 years
After mixing, the vaccine should be used within 24 hours.
Chemical and physical in-use stability has been demonstrated 24 hours at 25C.


1. What Pandemrix is and what it is used for

Pandemrix is a vaccine against a pandemic influenza (flu).

Pandemic flu is a type of influenza that occurs every few decades and which spreads rapidly around the world. The symptoms (signs) of pandemic flu are similar to those of ordinary flu but are usually more severe.
When a person is given the vaccine, the immune system (the body's natural defence system) will produce its own protection (antibodies) against the disease. None of the vaccine can cause flu.

2. How Pandemrix is given
Your doctor or nurse will administer the vaccine.

A dose (0.5 ml for adult/0.25 ml for paed) of the vaccine will be injected into the muscle (usually the upper arm). It must never be administered in a vein (intravascularly).
A second dose of vaccine should be given after an interval of at least 3 weeks.

If you are older than 80 years, you may receive 2 double injections of Pandemrix. Tjhe first 2 injections should be given at the elected date and the 2 other injections should preferably be given 3 weeks after.
The double injections will bw given in opposite arms.

3. Possible side effects
like all medicines, Pandemrix can cause side effects, although not everybody gets them.

Allergic reactions may occur following vaccination, in rare cases leading to shock. Doctors are aware of this possibility and have emergency treatment available for use in such cases.

The frequency of possible side effects listed below is defined using the following convention.
Very common (these may occur with more than 1 nin 10 doses of the vaccine).

Common (these may occur with up to 1 in 10 doses of the vaccine).
Uncommon (these may occur with up to 1 in 10 doses0 doses of the vaccine).

Very common:
Headache
Tiredness
pain, redness, swelling or a hard lump at the injection site
Fever
Arching muscles, joint pain

Common:
Warmth, itching or bruising at the injection site
Increased sweating, shivering, flu-like symptoms
Swollen glands in the neck, armpit or groin

Uncommon:
Tingling or numbness of the hands or feet
Sleepiness
Dizziness
Diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach pain, feeling sick
Itching, rash
Generally feeling unwell
Sleeplessness

These side effects usually disappear within 1-2 days without treatment they persist, consult your doctor.

GSK Biologicals s.a.

What is pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccine?

It is a vaccine to protect against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.

Why is it important to be vaccinated?

Pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 is a new type of influenza virus that is easily spread by infected droplets in the air through close personal contact, coughing and sneezing. In most cases it is a mild illness but for some people this influenza can cause serious health complications or death. The vaccination program will protect people from infection, minimize the amount of influenza virus circulating in the community and help protects against future waves of the virus.
The people at risk of severe outcomes if infected with this pandemic influenza virus are pregnant women, young children and those with underlying chronic conditions, including:

Heart disease
Asthma and other lung diseases
Cancer
Obesity
Diabetes
Kidney diseases
Immunological diseases
Neurological disease

Even if you are fit and well, you could still be at risk from this pandemic influenza or pass it on to others who are more vulnerable.

How safe is this vaccine?

Clinical trials have shown that the vaccine is safe and effective in those who participated. However, the vaccine is very new and the side-effects have not been fully documented.

Is this vaccine suitable for everyone?

Not everyone is suitable to receive this vaccine. People with a known severe allergy to eggs or anaphylaxis following a previous dose of any vaccine should not be given this vaccine.

How is this vaccine given?

This vaccine is given by injection as a single dose or two doses with an interval of 28 days depending on your age and condition. Your vaccinator will provide you the second injection schedule if needed.

What are the possible side effects?

Just like any other medicines, this vaccine can also cause side effects, but not everyone will experience them. The side effects can start soon after the vaccination.

Some possible common side effects include:
Headache, sweating, fever, muscle and joints pain, fatigue and shivering.

Local reactions on the injected site include:
Redness, swelling and pain.

Other possible uncommon side effects include:
Tingling or numbness of the limbs, sleepiness, dizziness, diarrhoea, vomiting, stomach pain, itching, rash, generally feeling unwell, sleeplessness, fits and low blood platelet count.
Very rarely, anaphylaxis ( a severe allergic reaction that may resukt in unconsciousness and death if not treated quickly) cvan occur. There have been reports of a possible very rare association between influenza vaccination and a condition called Guillain-Barre syndrome (a nervous system disorder which may cause paralysis). The association with this vaccine is not proven.

What should you do if you experience any of these side effects?

If you experience any of the above side effects or are concerned about any health problems which you think may be related, please seek medical advice immediately.

Am I fully protected against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) after being vaccinated?

It is important to remember that no vaccine provides full protection in every person vaccinated. However, if you ever get infected with pandemic influenza A (h1N1) virus, the conditions will be milder and the recovery period will be shorter. Immunity after vaccination differs from person to person. Generally, your body will start producing antibodies that provide protection not long after vaccination. The protection will last for about a year in most individuals.

This pandemic influenza A (h1N1) vaccine will not protect you against seasonal flu. You can still be infected by other seasonal influenza viruses. It is therefore important for you to practice good personal hygiene at all times.



Penjagaan selepas suntikan

  1. Letakkan tuala sejuk untuk kemerah-merahan atau bengkak dibahagian suntikan
  2. Makan panadol (paracetamol) untuk melegakan demam panas atau sakit
  3. Dapatkan nasihat kesihatan jika demam panas berpanjangan
  4. Minum banyak air dan berehat secukupnya
  5. Dapatkan nasihat kesihatan jika awda mengalami tindak balas atau risau mengenai masalah kesihatan yang awda fikirkan berkaitan dengan vaksin yang diterima

Kesan sampingan yang mungkin berlaku selepas suntikan

  1. Lazim (most common): 1 dalam 10 orang mungkin mengvhadapi kemerah-merahan, sakit dan bengkak dibahagian suntikan, sakit kepala, berpeluh, demam panas, sakit pada otot dan sendi, keletihan dan menggigil.
  2. Jarang (uncommon): Alahan teruk ('anaphylaxis').

Apakah dia vaksin pandemik influenza A (H1N1) ini?

Ia adalah sejenis vaksin yang boleh melindungi jangkitan virus pandemik influenza A (H1N1).

Mengapa suntikan vaksin ini penting?

Virus pandemik influenza A (H1N1) 2009 ialah sejenis virus influenza yang baru dan mudah merebak melalui udara termasuklah melalui sentuhan langsung, batuk dan bersin. Lazimnya merupakan penyakit ringan sahaja, walaubagaimanapun, influenza ini boleh menyebabkan komplikasi kesihatan yang serius atau kematian. Program vaksinasi ini akan melindungi orang ramai dari jangkitan, mengurangkan jumlah virus yang tersebar dikalangan masyarakat dan memberi perlindungan dari gelombang virus di masa akan datang.
Orang ramai yang berisiko tinggi bagi komplikasi kesihatan jika dijangkiti virus pandemic influenza ini ialah ibu-ibu mengandung, kanak-kanak dan pesakit penyakit kronik termasuk:

  • Penyakit jantung
  • Asma
  • Kanser
  • Obesiti
  • Penyakit kencing manis
  • Penyakit buah pinggang
  • Penyakit imunologi
  • Penyakit urat sarafBold
Individu sihat masih boleh terdedah kepada virus ini dan menjangkiti orang yang mudah terdedah kepada jangkitan.

Adakah vaksin ini selamat?

Kajian klinikal telah menunjukkan yang vaksin ini adalah selamat dan efektif untuk digunakan bagi yang terlibat. Walaubagaimanapun, vaksin ini adalah baru dan kesan sampingan vaksin ini belumlah dapat disenaraikan sepenuhnya.

Adakah vaksin ini sesuai untuk semua orang?

Tidak semua orang sesuai menerima suntikan vaksin ini. Orang ramai yang mempunyai alahan teruk kepada telur atau pernah mendapat alahan teruk 'anaphylaxis' selepas menerima apa jua vaksin tidaklah dapat diberikan vaksin ini.

Bagaimana vaksin ini diberikan?

Suntikan vaksin diberikan samada 1 dos atau 2 dos. Dos kedua akan diberikan selepas 28 hari mengikut umur dan keadaan pesakit. Kakitangan kesihatan yang mengendalikan suntikan akan memberikan tarikh dos ke 2 jika diperlukan.

Apakah kemungkinan kesan sampingan vaksin ini?

Seperti ubat-ubatan yang lain, vaksin ini juga mempunyai kesan sampingan, walaubagaimanapun tidak semua orang akan mengalaminya. Kesan sampingan boleh mula berlaku sebaik saja lepas suntikan.

Beberapa kesan sampingan yang mungkin berlaku:
Sakit kepala, berpeluh, demam panas, sakit pada otot dan sendi, keletihan dan menggigil.

Tindakbalas pada bahagian yang disuntik:
Kemerah-merahan, sakit dan bengkak.

Kesan sampingan yang jarang berlaku:
Anggota badan rasa kebas, mengantuk, pening, cirit-birit, muntah, sakit perut, gatal, ruam, merasa kurang sihat, susah tidur, sawan dan kekurangan 'platelet' darah.
Walaubagaimanapun jarang berlaku, 'anaphylaxis' (alahan teruk yang boleh mengakibatkan seseorang tidak sedar dan kematian jika tidak dirawat dengan segera) boleh berlaku. Terdapat juga laporan yang berkemungkinan mengaitkan vaksin influenza dengan sindrom Guillain-Barre (penyakit urat saraf yang boleh menyebabkan lumpuh). Perkaitan sindrom dengan vaksin in i tidak terbukti.

Apa yang perlu dilakukan jika awda mengalami kesan sampingan?

Jika awda mengalami kesan sampingan seperti yang dinyatakan di atas ataupun risau mengenai masalah kesihatan yang awda fikirkan berkaitan dengan vaksin yang diterima, awda hendaklah mendapatkan nasihat kesihatan dengan segera.

Adakah saya terlindung sepenuhnya daripada jangkitan virus pandemik influenza A (H1N1) selepas suntikan vaksin ini?
Adalah perlu diingatkan bahawa tidak ada vaksin yang memberi perlindungan sepenuhnya kepada setiap individu selepas suntikan vaksin. Walaubagaimanapun jika awda masih dijangkiti virus pandemik influenza A (H1N1), jangkitan akan lebih ringan dan jangkamasa untuk sembuh adalah pendek. Immuniti selepas suntikan berlainan dari seorang keseorang. Pada lazimnya, badan awda mula mengeluarkan antibodi yamg memberi perlindingan tidak lama selepas mendapat suntikan vaksin ini. Ia akan memberi perlindungan lebih kurang setahun bagi kebanyakan orang.

Vaksin pandemik influenza A (H1N1) tidak akan melindungi awda daripada influenza bermusim (seasonal flu). Awda masih boleh dijangkiti virus influenza bermusim yang lain. Oleh yang demikian adalah penting bagi awda mengamalkan kebersihan diri pada setiap masa.

MOH, NBD.
Nov 2009.
Hotline: 145 (During office hour)/ 7180991.





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Alhamdulillah, today is the beginning of a new year 2010!. I 've been trying to remember my 2009 new year resolution but my memory cells for 2009 stock in my brain seems to froze, I guess...hehe. Yap! selamat tahun baru to all my beloved family n frens. Eeh, macam sekajap saja masa berlalu cepatnya...2009......hmm, banyak perkara happen in my life (sadness n happiness). Walau sad, tapi wawa bersyukur tiada lagi 'digantung tak bertali'. Just imagine for 4 years i'm waiting n waiting, but things never change...still the same!. Hancur luluh perasaan ini hanya tuhan saja yang tahu. Its true, what past is past....hati ini sudah redha dan syukur pada tuhan tiada lagi dibayangi kenangan silam, namun kenangan manis masih terpahat dihati ini. Sudah fitrah manusia, inginkan keindahan, kemanisan dan ketulusan. Bukannya kebencian, cercaan dan penghinaan. aahh, bila keluhan dilepaskan bagai terlerai segala bebanan. Many thanks to my beloved mum yang mengerti diri ini. Mum, you're the only one who can read my mind..hehe. Not forgetting my sis (ngangah Imah), banyak tolong bawa Danish jalan jalan n belanja Danish esp patang masa wawa kraja. Sorry, kadang Danish majal kan ikut ngangah sama Rizqa. Asai jua, many thanx asai...tolong ambilkan Adib balik ugama 5pm kalau wawa ahir siap due to banyak patients. Babu, you're the best mum!...terima kasih bawa Adib n Danish kesana kemari n kadang antar n ambil diorang balik skulah masa wawa nda dapat. Apa ah azam wawa tahun baru ani? Yang pastinya wawa nda mau mengulagi kesilapan yang lalu, Insyaalah. Hmm..last year sayang rambut panjang wawa gunting sampai pendek esp bila datang stress. Skajap rebonding, skajap perm..membazir duit, but for sure i wont go for highlight cos rosak rambut n takut nda masuk air sembahyang walaupun guna brand halal. Alhamdulillah sampai sekarang wawa masih pertahankan mesti pakai tudong bila keluar rumah, even menjamur baju pun pakai tudung ikat hahaha. Pasal berat badan, diet..malas kan cakap (skajap turun, skajap naik ikut appetite). But wawa suka soup banding makanan yang beminyak n eat more fish n less meat. Exercise??...haha ikut mood n time. Exercise stuff dikulapis jarang pakai, jadi perhiasan saja. Kadang terasa banyak wasting money last year, apa saja kemahuan mau jua dituruti. So this year wawa berazam mau 'beli barang ikut keperluan, bukannya ikut kemahuan'. boleh kan??.....Insyaallah.

Anyway, Happy New Year 2010 everyone. Goodbye to 2009 N may 2010 brings more luck n filled with joy.....amin.

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